in Washington, D.C. : Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture .
Written in English
|Statement||prepared by Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture ; by Hewlette S. Crawford, Jr. and Daniel T. Jennings.|
|Series||Bibliographies and literature of agriculture -- no. 23.|
|Contributions||Jennings, Daniel T., United States. Forest Service., Northeastern Forest Experiment Station (Radnor, Pa.), Canada/United States Spruce Budworms Program.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||38 p. ;|
|Number of Pages||38|
The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, Clem., is the most significant defoliating pest of boreal balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea sp.) in North America. Spruce Bud Moth and Spruce Budworms Juniper Webworm Spruce Needleminers, Douglas-fir Tussock Moth and Silverspotted Tiger Moth Birds and Small Mammals That Injure TreesSources of Information on Pests and Pest Control you will want this book. It is the most useful tool we have ever seen for identifying insects that affect woody plantsBrand: Cornell University Press. The relationship between climate and outbreak characteristics of the spruce budworm in eastern Canada Article in Climatic Change 87(3) August with 47 Reads How we measure 'reads'. Management of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), outbreak spread requires understanding the demographic processes occurring in low, but rising populations. For the first time, detailed observations were made in the early stages of outbreak development. We sampled populations over a three-year period in both treated and untreated populations in the Lower St-Lawrence region of Cited by: 7.
Chapter Mouse Wars, Fungi, and Spruce Chapter What Should a Clever Moose Eat? Chapter Tent Caterpillars, Aspens, and the Regulation of Ecosystems Chapter The Diversity of Warblers and the Control of Spruce Budworm Chapter The Dance of Hare and Lynx PART IV: Pollinators, Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds Chapter Spruce budworms handbook: rating spruce-fir stands for spruce budworm damage in eastern North America. ([Washington, D.C.?]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cooperative State Research Service, ), by Canada/United States Spruce Budworms Program and United States. Cooperative State Research Service (page images at HathiTrust). The western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana), is a medium-sized American ly placed in the tanager family (Thraupidae), it and other members of its genus are classified in the cardinal family (Cardinalidae). The species's plumage and vocalizations are similar to other members of the cardinal family. Adults have pale stout pointed bills, yellow underparts, and light wing bars. Adult Class: Aves. Thus, bird populations, along with judiciously applied pesticides, play an important role in controlling spruce budworms. If forest bird populations were to significantly decline, spruce budworm containment would become more and more difficult and economically : Mark Hostetler.
Fir and spruce forests are greatly affected by slight fluctuations in climate. Temperature is the primary determinate for spatial patterns of fir and spruce. The two dominant trees in this type of forest are Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) and Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir). Although thick-barked trees, such as the Pinus resinosa, frequently survive fire, the thin bark of spruce make. For example, populations of spruce budworms and other insect “pests” may show multiple stable equilibrium points. Usually, the lower is associated with habitat conditions of low quality (such as immature balsam fir [ Abies balsamea ] and white spruce [ Picea glauca ] forests in the case of spruce budworms) in combination with predation and. Crawford, H. S. and Jennings, D. T. Relationships of Birds and Spruce Budworms - Literature Review and Annotate Bibliography. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, , Bibliographies and Literature of Agriculture, Number 38 pages. Softbound, minor signs of use, text in . The spruce budworm is the most destructive boreal forest insect which caused as average annual loss during the period of – of × 10 6 ha of forest in eastern North America. Among other defoliator insect pest of the boreal forest, the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) caused × 10 6 ha, and the jack pine budworm.